Maintain your old Siemens Hipath system

Was Pakistan a British Creation?

The furore in the BJP camp in India, triggered by L K Advani's recent remarks about Jinnah being a secular person and yet the founder of Pakistan, seems to have subsided. What is the real, historical truth? Recently unsealed British top-secret archives provide a stunningly different version of what really happened during the cataclysmic partition, in 1947, of India into three separate and distinct entities.

Prior to India's independence, it was widely believed that India was not likely to survive as an independent nation. The Muslim League dreamt of restoring Muslim political dominance in India and did not originally envisage a partition of the country into independent Muslim states. The Leaguers, in fact, felt that Partition would mean that Muslim power would get withdrawn to two distant corners of the subcontinent?considered by many an embarrassing retreat for Islam, which enjoyed 800 years of conquest. Since Muslims were nearly 40 per cent of the population of pre-partition British India and the non-Muslims were fragmented into innumerable faiths and castes, the concept of re-establishing some degree of Muslim dominance and control over the entire subcontinent seemed enticingly possible.

According to widely accepted notions, in India and Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah was the architect of Pakistan. Actually, it was the British who threatened to conduct a referendum in every province of the subcontinent and it was Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhai Patel who surrendered to the pressure, setting the stage for Lord Mountbatten, the British Viceroy of India, to formally propose the Partition Plan and get the Congress and Muslim League to accept it. On February 20, 1947, the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, announced that "Britain might have to consider handing over power to the existing provincial governments". This left the Congress with no choice but to accept partition.

At that time, very few persons imagined that India would not only survive but actually flourish as one of the world's strongest and longest lasting democracies and that Sardar Patel, the "Iron Man of India" would succeed in orchestrating the almost unimaginable task of so swiftly and decisively integrating over 600 former princely states into the Indian Union, at the time of Independence, in 1947.

According to Narendra Singh Sarila, the ADC to Lord Mountbatten in 1947, whose forthcoming book exposes the truth, the Partition of India was actually decided in February, 1946. This means that it was not Sir Cyril Radcliffe, the British Chairman of the two Boundary Commissions which partitioned India and created East and West Pakistan, who masterminded the plan. He arrived in India, for the first time only on July 8, 1947. By August 17, 1947, just two days after India's day of independence, Mountbatten had presented the Boundary Commission Awards to Indian leaders.

In fact, Jinnah, the "Quaid-i-Azam" could do no more than to console his countrymen?"we have been squeezed in as much as was possible and the latest blow that we have received is the Award of the Boundary Commission. It is an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse Award. It may be wrong, unjust and perverse; and it may not be a judicial but a political Award, but we have agreed to abide by it and it is binding upon us. As honorable people we must abide by it. It may be our misfortune but we must bear up this one more blow with fortitude, courage and hope." Lord Wavell, then the Viceroy of India, had all along encouraged the concept of partition, and recommended, as far back as February 1946, a truncated Pakistan - excluding from it one-third of the Punjab, half of Bengal and almost the whole of Assam - which thereafter became the final blue-print for the Award which enforced the partition of India.

Jinnah may actually have been just a tactical instrument for the British to use against the Congress. In the Cold War that ensued later between the West and the Soviet Union, it came as no surprise to enlightened political leaders, worldwide, when Pakistan became a much-used base for the West's overt and covert confrontations with the Soviets and their allies or victims.

References:

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/before.html

http:/ /www.mail-archive.com/hsc@mit.edu/msg00005.html

http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/leader18.htm< /p>

http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mp/2003/03/03/stories/2003030301380200.htm

http://www.mail -archive.com/hsc@mit.edu/msg00005.html

http://www.hvk.org/articles/0301/126.html

http:// www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=48969

http://esamskriti.com/html/new_inside.asp?cat_ name=history&sid=54&count1=10&cid=324

url: www.ranjithira.blogspot.com

Ranjit Hira
Writer, Editor, Journalist, Photographer, Digital Artist
Based in Mumbai, India

In The News:

Third person dies in China virus outbreak as new cases rise sharply
Mon, 20 Jan 2020 01:28:00 +0000
A third person has died in a virus outbreak in China as 139 new cases of the illness were found over the weekend, health officials have said.

Bodies of Ukrainian victims of Iran plane crash return home
Sun, 19 Jan 2020 10:52:00 +0000
The bodies of 11 Ukrainians who died in a plane crash have been repatriated as Iran denies it has sent back the black boxes.

UK-Russia relations still strained after Salisbury attack, PM tells Putin
Sun, 19 Jan 2020 16:48:00 +0000
The UK has not forgiven Moscow for the Salisbury novichok poisoning attack, Boris Johnson has told Vladimir Putin.

Harry and Meghan have taken a bold step - let's hope it works
Mon, 20 Jan 2020 02:03:00 +0000
Canadians have had some time to digest the prospect of taking in a family of royal exiles.

World leaders gather in bid to resolve escalating Libya civil war
Sun, 19 Jan 2020 00:42:00 +0000
Boris Johnson has joined other world leaders - including Russia's Vladimir Putin - at a summit in Berlin aimed at trying to resolve an escalating civil war in Libya.



tikatoshop.it

Erfahrungen mit Pallhuber Wein
Agen Bola SBOBET Terpercaya

Travel in comfort and at your leisure with CT Airlink Limousine & Car Service for top quality private transportation and exceptional customer service. We operate Sedans, SUVs & Vans for CT Car Services to covering all Connecticut airports including Car Service from CT to Newark Airport , Mohegan Casino Uncasville CT, Foxwoods Casino Mashantucket CT, Manhattan Cruise Terminal NYC, Brooklyn Cruise Terminal NYC and Bayonne Cruise Terminal NJ. CT Airlink hire licensed and friendly chauffeurs who have in-depth knowledge of the Areas.

Plastics In Our Nations Dumps and Landfills

Long Term Environmental Effect of Plastics, Composites and Other Materials... Read More

Sarbanes-Oxley Reality Check on Bureaucracy

There is no doubt in hindsight that Sarbanes Oxley was... Read More

Poitical Opinion - No Comment

Publicity is correlative to your position in the community. Seldom... Read More

Osama bin Laden Needs a Pay Raise

Osama bin Laden probably needs to get a pay raise,... Read More

The Economics of Cloning Armies or Super Families

Let's put the religious part of the debate for a... Read More

A Workable Alternative to Term Limits

The end of another election once again brings into focus... Read More

National ID Cards Have More Than Australians Concerned

Fearful that terrorists will next target Australia, Prime Minister John... Read More

Proven Risk Youth Vs At-Risk & High-Risk Youth

In the fields of juvenile justice policy and programming, there... Read More

Are We Serious About Fuel Alternatives?

As you can see from some of our previous articles,... Read More

Social Security Rant

As the Baby Boomer Generation continue to get older, one... Read More

High Speed Trains and The Future of Transportation

Where are all the high-speed trains we were promised? Where... Read More

How To Date Ann Coulter (If You Must)

I've decided to go public with my intentions: I will... Read More

Harmonic Beams to Pre-Detonate Shoulder Launched Surface to Air Missiles

Using Harmonic Beams to Pre-Detonate Shoulder Launched Surface to Air... Read More

Politicians Are Like Car Sales People

Well, another election has come and gone in the US... Read More

John Roberts ? Supreme Court Nominee

President Bush's selection of the Hon. John Roberts is an... Read More

Are American Twins - Majority Rule and Public Opinion, Sometimes Just a Couple of Dumbbells?

The idea that the majority shows the will of the... Read More

California Car Wash Fundraisers and Environmental Law

Many non-profit groups are feeling upset that they are allowed... Read More

Hitler - Bush

Hitler received a legacy from his Rothschild relations in Vienna... Read More

Free Trade, Outsourcing, Protectionism and Reality Check

Recently on C-SPAN, there were two gentlemen debating free trade... Read More

Free Markets, Farmers, and GM Crops

Many are condemning the latest GM Terminator seeds. Yet there... Read More

Michael Moore: The Dumbest People on the Face of the Earth

"Fahrenheit 9/11" auteur Michael Moore recently fueled the epidemic of... Read More

Anyone Awake Out There?

As we reel from the news of the recent bombings... Read More

When Political Correctness in NOT a Virtue

The other day I was sucker punched, hoodwinked, bamboozled, had... Read More

Using More Trees to Reduce Atmospheric CO2

As global warming continues to escalate the concerns of today's... Read More

Voting Pro-Environment is Good For Jobs, Health, and Security

There are many issues on the minds of US voters... Read More